Men cultivating in Ndian subvillage, Endulen, following heavy rain. It is remarkable both to find herders turning to cultivation, and also to see that it is the older men who are doing it. A women from Ndian, Nayauesupat Sendui, explained the need for cultivation: ‘Our livestock are less, and cultivation has become a way for us to feed our families. We have seen the Waarusha cultivate for food. We don’t enjoy digging. But it is an issue of filling the stomach.’

Land has remained a sensitive issue in Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA) for more than a generation, and recent plans by the authorities to evict some families had heightened tension. Most of these farmers are from families who had to leave Serengeti Park when it was extended in 1959, and some would also have been evicted from the Ngorongoro crater in 1974.